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Humphrey de Bohun and Elizabeth Plantagenet
Humphrey VIII de BOHUN, Fourth Earl of Hereford and Third Earl of Essex.
Born in 1276; son of Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford and Maud de Fiennes.
Humphrey married Elizabeth of England, daughter of King Edward I, on 14 November 1302 in Westminster, Middlesex, England.
He was one of the leaders who deposed King Edward II's favorite Piers Gaveston. He fought at the Battle of Bannockburn, where he was captured by the Scots. The Battle of Bannockburn (June 23, 1314 – June 24, 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the Wars of Scottish Independence. Stirling Castle was besieged by the Scots in the spring of 1314. The commander at Stirling, Sir Philip Mowbray, agreed to surrender if a relieving force had not arrived by the end of June. On hearing of this agreement, Edward II of England organized a considerable force of possibly 25,000 men, including several thousand knights to head north. The army was mustered at Berwick-upon-Tweed before crossing the border at Coldstream and heading for Stirling.
On Sunday, June 23, the English force had reached the ford at Bannockburn, a few miles south of Stirling, where the Scottish force of maybe 9,000 was waiting for them under the command of Robert Bruce. The Scots intended to fight in a narrow gap, relying on their disciplined schiltron to blunt the advantages of the English heavy cavalry. The actual battle spread over the few miles of poor ground between Bannock Burn and the River Forth.
The battle was fought over two days and although the first encounters were relatively small compared to the major clash on the second day, the outcome was dictated by the strategically disastrous disposition of the English force, hemmed in on marshland between the Bannock Burn and the Pelstream Burn in the marshland leading down to the banks of the meandering River Forth. The Battle of Bannockburn was remembered by the English as "The Battle of the Pools".
The first clash was between 500 English cavalry heading for Stirling and a force of Scottish infantry. The schiltrons proved their worth, the English charges were repulsed for little loss and the cavalry were forced to retire. At the same time there had been a number of skirmishes around the main force as the English crossed Bannock Burn to face up to the Scots, including the clash of the English Knight, Henry De Bohun (nephew of Humphrey de Bohun, the Earl of Hereford) and Robert Bruce. De Bohun had seen Bruce mounted on a pony in advance of the main Scottish force. Tilting his lance, De Bohun rode down on the solitary figure whose pony side-stepped the charging warhorse at the last moment while its rider dispatched the knight with a blow to his helmet with his battle axe. Bruce then proceeded to show his now broken axe to the troops and proclaim to all that it was his favourite axe. His advisors mentioned to him of the risk he took being so far forward, but Bruce refused to listen, appearing more concerned with the loss of his axe. As daylight was fading after some further half-hearted skirmishes, the English withdrew to set up camp between Bannock Burn and the Pelstream Burn.
The main battle occurred on June 24. The English advanced across the burn impatient to destoy what they saw as inferior force, whilst the Scots waited for them organised in schiltrons. The first English cavalry charge was disorganised and resulted in a bloody shambles, few knights managed to break through the schiltrons and those that did where quickly pulled from their horses and dispatched. The Scots then advanced, still in schiltrons, forcing the disorganised cavalry back into the English infantry still trying to join them across the burn. Volleys from English archers fell on both English and Scots and before they could properly threaten the advancing Scottish infantry a sally of light cavalry drove the long bow men back. The English superiority of numbers hampered any attempts at rallying them as the Scottish force pressed the masses back towards the river. The English retreat soon degenerated into a costly rout, with the flower of English chivalry either ingloriously drowning in the Bannockburn, or being cut down by the pursuing Scots. It was the bloodiest day for the English aristocracy prior to the Wars of the Roses and accounts speak of the Bannockburn, choked with English dead 'running red' for several days after the Battle. It is a well known myth of one recording commenting One could walk across the burn without so much as a damp shoe. Edward II fled the field early, and after being denied entry to Stirling by Philip Mowbray on the grounds that he had failed to relieve the defense by the proscribed date and thus the castle was already surrendered to the Scots, he went to Dunbar via Winchburgh and then by ship back to England.
He was killed at the Battle of Boroughbridge in 1322, while leading another rebellion against the king.
The Battle of Boroughbridge was a small but important battle in the conflicts between Edward II of England and his rebellious barons. The battle took place near at important bridge across the River Ure called Boroughbridge, northwest of York. Early in 1322, King Edward took forces north in England to subdue his cousin Thomas, Earl of Lancaster. Thomas was pushed further north, where he may have been hoping to join up with forces from Scotland. However on March 16, he found his way across the river Ure barred by forces of Sir Andrew Harclay. Sir Andrew used the infantry tactics which were later to prove so effective against the French at Crecy, and the rebels were defeated. Of the rebel leaders, Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, was killed, and the rest captured. The prisoners were later convicted of treason and executed.
He was succeeded by his second son John, 5th Earl of Hereford and 4th Earl of Essex.
ELizabeth Plantagenet. (Also called Elizabeth of England).
Born on 7 August 1282 at Rhuddlan Castle, Flintshire, Wales; daughter of EDWARD I, King of England.
She married (1) Jan I, Count Of Holland on 8 Jan 1296/1297 in Ipswich, Suffolk, England.
She married (2) Humphrey VIII de Bohun on 14 Nov 1302 in , Westminster, Middlesex, England.
She died on 5 May 1316 in Quendon, Essex, England. She was buried on 23 May 1316 in , Walden Abbey, Hartfordshire, England.
CHILDREN of Humphrey de Bohun and Elizabeth Plantagenet
- Eleanor de Bohun. (Born in 1312 if she was the twin of William). She married James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormond (1305-1338). She died in 1363.
- William de Bohun, First Earl of Northampton. Born in 1312, a twin. He married Elizabeth de Badlesmere (Badelsmere), of Badlesmere, Kent, England. He died in 1360.
- John, 5th Earl of Hereford and 4th Earl of Essex.
- [S1]. The Houses of Bohun, Butler and Boleyn. http://www.geocities.com/reyes_inglaterrra/bohun.html
- [S2]. Michael & Deborah Hervey's Genealogy. http://www.mdhervey.com/web/pafweb/index2.htm
- [S3]. Humphrey de Bohun. http://humphrey-de-bohun.iqnaut.net/ Quotes as a source Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
- [S4]. Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humphrey_de_Bohun,_4th_Earl_of_Hereford. Accessed 20160110.
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