HROAR Halfdansson. (Hrogar)
Son of HALFDAN. He married OGNE, Princess of Northumberland.
Hrogar, Hrothgar, Hrˇarr, Hroar, Roar, Roas or Ro was a legendary Danish king, living in the early 6th century. His name would in his own language (Proto-Norse) have been *Hro■igaizaz (famous spear).
A Danish king Hrogar appears in the Anglo-Saxon epics Beowulf and Widsith, and also in Norse sagas, Norse poems, and medieval Danish chronicles. In both Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian tradition, Hrogar is a Scylding, the son of Healfdene, the brother of Halga, and the uncle of Hroulf. Moreover, in both traditions, the mentioned characters were the contemporaries of the Swedish king Eadgils; and both traditions also mention a feud with men named Froda and Ingeld.
Hrogar, Healfdene, and other names used above are Anglo-Saxon forms. In non-Anglo-Saxon sources, the names of all these characters appear in their corresponding Old Icelandic, Old Danish, or Latinized versions.
OGNE, Princess of Northumberland.
CHILDREN of HROAR Halfdansson
- VALDAR Hroarsson. The Mild. He married Hildis in 567 in Jutland, Denmark.
- [S1]. The official website of Alynia H. Rule. http://www.ancuairt.org/genealogy/matilda.htm and http://www.ancuairt.org/genealogy/aeddmawr.htm#60.
Hrogar appears in two Anglo-saxon poems, Beowulf and Widsith. Beowulf gives the fuller account of Hrogar and how the Geatish hero Beowulf visited him to free his people of the trollish creature Grendel. Widsith only mentions Hrogar, Heorot, his nephew Hroulf and their enemy Ingeld, but can complete Beowulf in some cases where Beowulf does not give enough information. This is notably the case concerning the ending of his feud with Ingeld.
In the epic poem Beowulf, Hrogar is mentioned as the builder of the great hall Heorot, and ruler of Denmark when the Geatish hero Beowulf arrives to defeat the monster Grendel.
When Hrogar is first introduced in Beowulf, it is explained that he was the second of four children of King Healfdene: he had an older brother, Heorogar, who was king before him; a younger brother Halga; and a sister, who was married to the king of Sweden. The sister is not named in the manuscript and most scholars agree this is a scribal error, but suggested names are Signy and Yrsa.
The poem further tells that Hrogar was "given victory in war" and so his kinsmen eagerly followed him. He is both honest and generous: "He broke no oaths, dealt out rings, treasures at his table". When Beowulf leads his men to Denmark, he speaks of Hrogar to both a coast-guard and to Hrogar's herald: he calls Hrogar a "famed king", "famed warrior", and "protector of the Scyldings" (the ruling clan), and describes him as "old and good." The poet emphasizes that the Danes "did not find fault" with Hrogar, "for that was a good King". When Beowulf defeats Grendel, Hrogar rewards Beowulf and his men with great treasures, showing his gratitude and open-handedness. The poet says that Hrogar is so generous that "no man could fault him, who wished to speak the truth."
Hrogar was married to a woman named Wealh■eow, who was a Helming, probably defining her as a relative of Helm, the ruler of the Wulfings. When Hrogar welcomes Beowulf, he recalls his friendship with Beowulf's family. He met Beowulf's father Ecg■eow "when I first ruled the Danes" after the death of Heorogar; he laments Heorogar's fall ("He was better than I!") and recalls how he settled Ecg■eow's blood feud with the Wulfings. Hrogar thanks God for Beowulf's arrival and victory over Grendel, and swears to love Beowulf like a son.
The poem introduces Hroulf (Hrˇlfr Kraki in Scandinavian sources) as Hrogar's supporter and right-hand man; and we learn that Hroulf is Hrogar's nephew and that "each was true to the other". The common piece of information that Hrogar's younger brother Halga is Hroulf's father comes from Scandinavian sources (see below), where Halga was unaware that Yrsa was his own daughter and either raped or seduced her. Yrsa herself was tragically also the result of Halga raping a woman.
Wealh■eow has borne Hrogar two sons, Hreric and Hromund, and Hroulf is to be regent if Hrogar dies before his sons are grown. (Since Hrogar is an old man at this time--he tells Beowulf he has been king for "fifty winters"--and Wealh■eow's two sons are not yet grown, it seems likely that Wealh■eow is much younger than Hrogar, and may not be his first wife.)
Hrogar is plunged into gloom and near-despair after Grendel's mother attacks the hall and kills Hrogar's best friend and closest advisor; but when Beowulf advises him not to despair, and that "it is better to avenge our friends than to mourn overmuch", Hrogar leaps to his feet and thanks God for Beowulf's wise words, and leads the Danes and Geats out to attack the small lake (mere) where Grendel's mother lives.
After Beowulf defeats Grendel's mother, Hrogar rewards him again, and then preaches a sermon in which he warns Beowulf to beware of arrogance and forgetfulness of God.
Beowulf takes his leave of Hrogar to return home, and Hrogar embraces him and weeps that they will not meet again (because Hrogar is a very old man). This is Hrogar's last appearance in the poem.
When Beowulf reports on his adventure to his lord Hygelac, he mentions that Hrogar also had a daughter, Freawaru; it is not clear whether Freawaru was also the daughter of Wealh■eow or was born of an earlier marriage. Since the Danes were in conflict with the Heaobards, whose king Froda had been killed in a war with the Danes, Hrogar sent Freawaru to marry Froda's son Ingeld, in an unsuccessful attempt to end the feud.
Beowulf predicts to Hygelac that Ingeld will turn against his father-in-law Hrogar. Earlier in the poem, the poet tells us that the hall Heorot was eventually destroyed by fire, see quote (Gummere's translation):
heah and horn-geap: heao-wylma bad,
laan liges; ne wŠs hit lenge ■a gen
■Št se ecg-hete aum-swerian
Šfter wŠl-nie wŠcnan scolde.
....there towered the hall,
high, gabled wide, the hot surge waiting
of furious flame. Nor far was that day
when father and son-in-law stood in feud
for warfare and hatred that woke again.
It is tempting to interpret the new war with Ingeld as leading to the burning of the hall of Heorot, but the poem separates the two events (by a ne wŠs hit lenge ■a meaning "nor far way was that day when", in Gummere's translation). According to Widsith (see below), Hrogar and Hroulf defeat Ingeld, and if Scandinavian tradition (see the more detailed discussion below) is to be trusted Hrogar himself is killed by a relative, or by the king of Sweden, but he is avenged by his younger brother Halga. Halga dies in a Viking expedition; Hroulf succeeds him and rises in fame, and according to Hroulf's own saga and other sources, Hroulf's cousin and/or brother-in-law Heoroweard slays Hroulf (is this the event referred to as the burning of Heorot?). Heoroweard himself dies in that battle, and according to two sources, this happens only a few hours later, as an act of vengeance by a man loyal to Hroulf, called Wigg. This is the kin-slaying end of the Scylding dynasty.
Whereas Beowulf never dwells on the outcome of the battle with Ingeld, the possibly older poem Widsith refers to Hrogar and Hroulf defeating Ingeld at Heorot:
Hro■wulf ond Hrogar heoldon lengest
sibbe Štsomne suhtorfŠdran,
si■■an hy forwrŠcon wicinga cynn
ond Ingeldes ord forbigdan,
forheowan Št Heorote Heaobeardna ■rym.
Hroulf and Hrogar held the longest
peace together, uncle and nephew,
since they repulsed the Viking-kin
hewn at Heorot Heaobard's army.
and Ingeld to the spear-point made bow,
This piece suggests that the conflict between the Scyldings Hrogar and Hroulf on one side, and the Heaobards Froda and Ingeld on the other, was well-known in Anglo-Saxon England. This conflict also appears in Scandinavian sources, but in the Norse tradition the Heaobards had apparently been forgotten and the conflict is instead rendered as a family feud (see Gesta Danorum, Hrˇlf Kraki's saga and Skj÷ldunga saga, below, for more information). The Norse sources also deal with the defeat of Ingeld and/or Froda.
Hrˇlf Kraki Tradition
Hrˇlf Kraki's saga
In the Scandinavian sources, consisting of Norse sagas, Icelandic poems and Danish chronicles, Hrogar also appears as a Danish king of the Scylding dynasty. He remains the son of Healfdene and the elder brother of Halga. Moreover, he is still the uncle of Hroulf. The Scandinavian sources also agree with Beowulf by making Hrogar contemporary with the Swedish king Eadgils. These agreements with Beowulf are remarkable considering the fact that these sources were composed from oral tradition 700 to 800 years after the events described, and 300 to 400 years later than Beowulf and Widsith.
There are also notable differences. The Heaobards Ingeld and Froda also appear in Scandinavian tradition, but their tribe, the Heaobards, had long been forgotten, and instead the tribal feud was rendered as a family feud. Their relationship as father and son had also been reversed in some sources, and so either Ingeld or Froda is given as the brother of Healfdene. Ingeld or Froda murdered Healfdene, but was himself killed in revenge by Hrogar and Halga. Moreover, in Scandinavian tradition, Hrogar is a minor character in comparison to his nephew Hroulf. Such differences indicate that Beowulf and Scandinavian sources represent separate traditions.
The names of Hrogar and others appear in the form they had in Old Icelandic or latinized Old Danish at the time the stories were put to paper, and not in their Old English, or more "authentic" Proto-Norse forms.
It has been the matter of some debate whether the hero Beowulf could have the same origin as Hroulf's berserker B÷varr Bjarki, who appears in Scandinavian sources.
Among these sources, it is the most famous one, the Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga which is most different from Beowulf, and a notable difference is that Hrogar leaves the rule of Denmark to his younger brother Halga and moves to Northumbria. The focus is consequently on the Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga when a scholar questions the comparison of Hrogar and other characters from Beowulf with counterparts in Scandinavian tradition. Scandinavian sources have added some information that appear in Beowulf studies, without having any founding in the work itself, such as the information that Halga was, or probably was, Hroulf's father. Another example is the existence of a woman named Yrsa, who, however, has been transposed to a role she never had in any source texts, that of Hrogar's sister.
Norse sagas and poems
In Icelandic sources, Hrogar, Halga and Hroulf appear under the Old Icelandic forms of their names; that is, as Hrˇarr, Helgi and Hrˇlfr, the last one with the epithet Kraki. In the case of the Skj÷ldunga saga ("Saga of the Scyldings") only a Latin summary has survived, and so their names are latinized. The Icelandic sources can be divided into two groups: the Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga on the one hand, and the Skj÷ldunga saga and BjarkarÝmur on the other. Both groups tell a version of Hrogar and Halga's feud with Froda (Frˇi) and Ingeld (Ingjaldr). However, whereas the Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga make Froda the brother of Healfdene, the Skj÷ldunga saga and BjarkarÝmur make Ingeld the brother of Healfdene. Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga also disagrees with all the other works by moving Hrogar from the throne of Denmark to Northumbria.
Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga
The Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga relates that Halfdan has three children, Hrˇarr, Helgi, and the daughter Signř, who is married to SŠvil Jarl. Halfdan has a brother named Frˇi and both of them rule a kingdom, but Halfdan is good-natured and friendly, whereas Frˇi is savage. Frˇi attacks and kills Halfdan and makes himself the king of a united Denmark. He then sets out to neutralize his nephews Hrˇarr and Helgi. However, the two brothers survive on an island, protected by a man called Vivil; and after some adventure they avenge their father by killing Frˇi.
Hrˇarr is presented as "meek and blithe", and he is completely removed from ruling the kingdom, leaving the rule to his brother Helgi. Instead he joins Norri, the king of Northumberland, where he marries Ígn, the king's daughter. As recompense for Hrˇarr's share of the Danish kingdom, Helgi gives him a golden ring.
SŠvil Jarl's son Hrˇkr (Hrˇarr and Helgi's nephew) becomes jealous that he has not inherited anything from his grand-father Halfdan; he goes to his uncle Helgi to claim his inheritance. Helgi refuses to give him a third of Denmark, and so instead he goes to Northumbria to claim the golden ring. He asks Hrˇarr if he at least could have a look at the ring, whereupon he takes the ring and throws it into the water. Hrˇarr naturally becomes angry, and cuts off Hrˇkr's feet and sends him back to his ships. Hrˇkr cannot live with this, and so he returns with a large army and slays Hrˇarr. Helgi avenges his brother by also cutting off Hrˇkr's arms. Hrˇarr's son Agnar retrieves the ring by diving in the water, which gives him great glory. Agnar is said to have become greater than his father, and much talked of in the old sagas.
Helgi attacks Sweden to retrieve Yrsa, his daughter and lover, but is killed by Ails, the king of Sweden. He is succeeded by Hrˇlfr Kraki, his son by Yrsa.
Although it agrees with all the other Scandinavian sources in telling the story of Halga's incestuous relationship with his daughter Yrsa, it disagrees with all of them and with Beowulf by removing Hrogar altogether as the king of Denmark. Instead, his place is taken by his brother Halga, and Hrogar is sent to Northumberland, where he marries Ígn, the daughter of a positively fictive king Norri who is named after Northumberland (Norimbraland). Opinion is divided on whether there is any connection between Hrogar's wife Wealh■eow in Beowulf and his wife Ígn in Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga; it has been suggested that Ígn shows that Wealh■eow and her family (the Helmings) were Anglo-Saxon. Another difference is the fact that Hrogar's sons Hreric and Hromund do not appear in the Scandinavian tradition, but correspond to Agnar, in Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga.
Skj÷ldunga saga and BjarkarÝmur
The Skj÷ldunga saga and BjarkarÝmur tell a similar version to that of the Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga, but with several striking differences. Ingeld (Ingjaldus) of Beowulf reappears, but it is Ingeld who is the father of Froda (Frodo), and unlike in Hrˇlf Kraki's saga, Ingeld takes Froda's place as the half-brother of Healfdene (Haldan).
The sources relate that Haldan has a half-brother named Ingjaldus and a queen Sigrith with whom he has three children: the sons Roas and Helgo and the daughter Signy.
Ingjaldus is jealous of his half-brother Haldan and so he attacks and kills him, and then marries Sigrith. Ingjaldus and Sigrith then have two sons named RŠrecus and Frodo. Their half-sister Signy stays with her mother until she is married to SŠvil, the jarl of Zealand. Ingjaldus, who is worried that his nephews will want revenge, tries to find them and kill them, but Roas and Helgo survive by hiding on an island near Skňne. When they are old enough, they avenge their father by killing Ingjaldus.
The two brothers both become kings of Denmark, and Roas marries the daughter of the king of England. When Helgo's son Rolfo (whom Helgo begat with his own daughter Yrsa) is eight years old, Helgo dies and Rolfo succeeds him. Not much later, Roas is killed by his half-brothers RŠrecus and Frodo, whereupon Rolfo becomes the sole king of Denmark.
This version agrees with all other versions of the legend of Hrogar (Roas) and Halga (Helgo) by making them sons of Healfdene (Haldan) and by presenting Hrogar as the uncle of Hroulf (Rolfo). It agrees with Beowulf and Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga by mentioning that they had a sister, and by dealing with their feud with Froda (Frodo) and Ingeld (Ingjaldus), although there is a role reversal by making Ingeld the father of Froda instead of the other way round. It agrees with the other Scandinavian versions by treating Halga's incestuous relationship with his own daughter Yrsa. Moreover, it agrees with all other versions, except for Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga, by presenting Hrogar as a king of Denmark, although it agrees with Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga by marrying Hrogar to an Anglo-Saxon woman. Another agreement with Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga is the information that their sister was married to a SŠvil Jarl, and that they had to hide on an island fleeing their kin-slaying uncle, before they could kill him and avenge their father.
Danish medieval chronicles
In the Chronicon Lethrense, Annales Lundenses and Gesta Danorum (12th century works of Danish history, written in Latin), King Hrogar is mentioned by the Old Danish form of the name Ro or Roe. His father Healfdene appears as Haldan or Haldanus, while his brother Halga appears as Helghe or Helgo. Hroulf appears with an epithet as Roluo Krage or Rolf Krage. Their Swedish enemy, King Eadgils, appears as Athislus or Athisl (the Chronicon Lethrense calls him Hakon.)
The only Danish work that retains traditions of the feud with Ingeld and Froda is the Gesta Danorum.
Chronicon Lethrense and Annales Lundenses
The Chronicon Lethrense and the included Annales Lundenses report that Ro and Helghe were the sons of Haldan, who died of old age. The two brothers shared the rule, Ro taking the land and Helghe the water. They also tell that Ro founded and gave his name to the market town of Roskilde and that he was buried in Lejre. However, before Ro's nephew Rolf Krage (Hroulf), who was Helghe's son by his own daughter Yrse, could ascend the throne, the rule of Denmark was given to a dog, on the orders of the Swedish king Hakon/Athisl (that is, Eadgils).
The Chronicon Lethrense and the Annales Lundenses agree with Beowulf in presenting Hrogar (Ro) and his brother Halga (Helghe) as the sons of Healfdene (Haldan). They do not, however, contain a character description as Beowulf does; nor do they mention his spouse or his children. However, they introduce a sharing of power between Hrogar and Halga where Halga only had power over the fleet. It is interesting to note that Hrogar is reported as founding the town of Roskilde, which coincides with the information in Beowulf that he built Heorot. The information that Hroulf (Rolf) was the result of an incestuous relationship between Halga and his daughter Yrse only appears in Scandinavian tradition. Like Beowulf, the Annales Lundenses makes Hrogar the contemporary of Eadgils (Athisl), whereas the Chronicon Lethrense calls the Swedish king Hakon.
The Gesta Danorum (book 2), by Saxo Grammaticus, contains roughly the same information as Beowulf, the Chronicon Lethrense and the Annales Lundenses: that is, that Ro was the son of Haldanus and the brother of Helgo, and the uncle of his successor Roluo Krage (Hroulf). It is only said about Ro that he was "short and spare", that he founded the town of Roskilde, and that when their father Haldanus died of old age, he shared the rule of the kingdom with his brother Helgo, Ro taking the land and Helgo the water.
Ro could not defend his kingdom against the Swedish king Hothbrodd, who was not happy with warring in the East but wished to test his strength against the Danes (Oliver Elton's translation):
Fain to extend his empire, he warred upon the East, and after a huge massacre of many peoples begat two sons, Athisl and Hother, and appointed as their tutor a certain Gewar, who was bound to him by great services. Not content with conquering the East, he assailed Denmark, challenged its king, Ro, in three battles, and slew him.
Ro was, however, avenged by his brother Helgo, who then promptly went east and died in shame (because he discovered that he had fathered Roluo Krake with his own daughter Urse.) Roluo succeeded his father and uncle to the Danish throne.
The Gesta Danorum also agrees with Beowulf in presenting Hrogar (Ro) and Halga (Helgo) as brothers and the sons of Healfdene (Haldanus). Moroever, like the Chronicon Lethrense and the Annales Lundenses, it presents Hroulf (Roluo) as the son of Halga and his own daughter. A striking difference is that the Swedish king Eadgils (Athisl) is pushed forward a generation, and instead Saxo introduces Hrogar's killer Hothbrodd as the father of Eadgils, a place that other sources give to Ohthere. A similar piece of information is also found in the Chronicon Lethrense and the Annales Lundenses, where Halga had to kill a man named Hodbrod to win all of Denmark. However, Saxo also adds the god H÷r as the brother of Eadgils in order to present a euhemerized version of the Baldr myth, later.
The tradition of the feud with the Heaobards Ingeld and Froda appears twice in the Gesta Danorum. The first time it tells of the feud is Book 2, where Ingeld (called Ingild) appears with the son Agnar. In this version, Ingeld's son was about to marry Hroulf's sister Rute, but a fight broke out and Agnar died in a duel with B÷varr Bjarki (called Biarco).
The second time it tells of Froda and Ingeld is in Book 7, but here Hrogar is replaced by a Harald and Halga by a Haldanus. It is the Scandinavian version of the feud, similar to the one told in the Skj÷ldunga saga, BjarkarÝmur and Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga, where the Heaobards are forgotten and the feud with Froda and Ingeld has become a family feud. The main plot is that Ingeld had the sons Frodo (Froda) and Harald (corresponds to Healfdene). The relationship between Ingeld and Froda was thus reversed, a reversal also found in the Skj÷ldunga saga and in the BjarkarÝmur. Froda killed his brother and tried to get rid of his nephews Harald (corresponds to Hrogar) and Haldanus (corresponds to Halga). After some adventures, the two brothers burnt their uncle to death inside his house and avenged their father.
When the accounts of Hrogar are compared, only three elements are common to all of them: he was the son of a Danish king Healfdene, the brother of Halga, and he was the uncle of Hroulf. Apart from that, the Scandinavian tradition is unanimous in dwelling on the incestuous relationship between Halga and his daughter Yrsa which resulted in Hrogar, a story which was either not presented in Beowulf or was not known to the poet. The Danish sources (Chronicon Lethrense, Annales Lundenses, Gesta Danorum) all agree with Beowulf by making Hrogar the king of Denmark. The Icelandic (Skj÷ldunga saga, BjarkarÝmur, Hrˇlf Kraki's saga) all agree with Beowulf by mentioning that they had a sister, and by mentioning their feud with Froda and Ingeld, albeit with alterations. What is unique to the Icelandic versions are the adventures of Hrogar and Halga before one of the two brothers could become king.
The similarities between Beowulf and the mentioned Scandinavian sources are by far not the only ones. Other personalities mentioned in Beowulf appear in the stories before and after dealing with Hrogar, but for more, see origins for Beowulf and Hrˇlf Kraki.
Due to his central position in the Beowulf saga, Hrogar appears in a number of dramatic and literary works based on the story. He was played by Sven Wollter in The 13th Warrior (1999), Oliver Cotton in Beowulf (a sci-fi/fantasy adaptation filmed in 1999), Stellan Skarsgard in Beowulf & Grendel (2006), and will be voiced by Sir Anthony Hopkins in the 2007 animated version of the saga.
1. ^ The dating has never been a matter of controversy. It is inferred from the internal chronology of the sources themselves and the dating of Hygelac's raid on Frisia to c. 516. It is also supported by archaeological excavations of the barrows of Eadgils and Ohthere in Sweden. For a discussion, see e.g. Birger Nerman's Det svenska rikets uppkomst (1925) (in Swedish). For presentations of the archaeological findings, see e.g. Elisabeth Klingmark's Gamla Uppsala, Svenska kulturminnen 59, Riksantikvarieńmbetet (in Swedish), or this English language presentation by the Swedish National Heritage Board
2. ^ Lexikon ÷ver urnnordiska personnamn PDF
3. ^ lines 59-63
4. ^ The manuscript (Cotton Vitellius A. xv, the Nowell Codex) reads hyrde ic ■ elan cwen. hyrde ic means "I have heard". ■ is either the first letter of, or an abbreviation for, the word ■Št, "that." There is no gap in the manuscript between ■ and elan, but clearly there is information missing: the name of the sister and the name of the man whose queen she was. It seems likely the scribe simply missed a few words. The Beowulf manuscript was copied down by two different scribes (Scribe B took over midway through line 1939); this passage was copied down by Scribe A, who was somewhat more error-prone than Scribe B.
5. ^ In Norse tradition, Hrogar's sister's name was Signř, but she was married to SŠvil, a mere Danish earl (see the sections on the Skj÷ldunga saga and the Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga). Friderich Kluge (1896) accordingly suggested that the line be restored as hyrde ic ■ [Sigeneow wŠs SŠw]elan cwen, rendering the Norse names in Old English forms. However, the only certain Swedish (Scylfing) royal name ending in -ela that has come down to us is Onela, and according to the rules of alliteration this means that her name must have begun with a vowel. Sophus Bugge consequently identified her with the Swedish queen Yrsa (Sidelights on Teutonic History During the Migration Period, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1911; pp. 82 ff). He thus suggested the line should be emended to read hyrde ic ■[Št ?rse wŠs On]elan cwen. Most 20th century translators followed this suggestion. However, in Norse tradition, Yrsa was the daughter and lover/rapee of Hrogar's younger brother Halga, and the mother of Halga's son Hroulf, and most modern translators simply leave the line as it is.
6. ^ lines 64-67
7. ^ lines 80-81
8. ^ lines 862-863
9. ^ lines 1020-1062
10. ^ line 612
11. ^ See Widsith, 21.
12. ^ lines 456-490.
13. ^ lines 925-956
14. ^ lines 1011-1017
15. ^ lines 1162-1165
16. ^ lines 1168-1191
17. ^ line 1769
18. ^ lines 1321-1323
19. ^ lines 1698-1784
20. ^ lines 1870-1880
21. ^ lines 2000-2069
22. ^ lines 2027-2028
23. ^ lines 2067-2069
24. ^ lines 80-85
25. ^ Modern English translation by Francis Barton Gummere
26. ^ The Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga and the Skj÷ldunga saga.
27. ^ In the Gesta Danorum
28. ^ I.e. Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga
29. ^ The Chronicon Lethrense/Annales Lundenses, Gesta Danorum and the Skj÷ldunga saga
30. ^ The Chronicon Lethrense/Annales Lundenses and the Gesta Danorum
31. ^ Although Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga makes him move to Northumbria.
32. ^ Called Ails, Athisl, Athislus or Adillus (although Chronicon Lethrense calls the Swedish king Hakon).
33. ^ It has been reversed in Gesta Danorum, Skj÷ldunga saga and BjarkarÝmur, but not in Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga.
34. ^ Lexikon ÷ver urnnordiska personnamn PDF
35. ^ The Relation of the Hrolfs Saga Kraka and the Bjarkarimur to Beowulf by Olson, 1916, at Project Gutenberg
36. ^ The Relation of the Hrolfs Saga Kraka and the Bjarkarimur to Beowulf by Olson, 1916, at Project Gutenberg
37. ^ The Relation of the Hrolfs Saga Kraka and the Bjarkarimur to Beowulf by Olson, 1916, at Project Gutenberg
38. ^ Nerman (1925:150)
39. ^ The Relation of the Hrolfs Saga Kraka and the Bjarkarimur to Beowulf by Olson, 1916, at Project Gutenberg
40. ^ This is not etymologically correct as the name of the town Hrˇiskelda, "Hrˇi's well", (1050) is derived from the name Hrˇi and not Hrˇarr, see Tunstall's comments on his translation of the Chronicon Lethrense.
41. ^ Hakon according to Chronicon Lethrense proper, Athisl according to the included Annals of Lund.
42. ^ The Relation of the Hrolfs Saga Kraka and the Bjarkarimur to Beowulf by Olson, 1916, at Project Gutenberg
43. ^ The Relation of the Hrolfs Saga Kraka and the Bjarkarimur to Beowulf by Olson, 1916, at Project Gutenberg
* Kluge, Friedrich (1896). "Der Beowulf und die Hrolfs Saga Kraka." Englische Studien 22, pp. 144ľ45.
* Nerman, Birger (1925). "Det svenska rikets uppkomst".
* "Sidelights on Teutonic History During the Migration Period", Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1911; pp. 82 ff.
* Beowulf read aloud in Old English
o Modern English translation by Francis Barton Gummere
o Modern English translation by John Lesslie Hall
o Ringler, Dick. Beowulf: A New Translation For Oral Delivery, May 2005. Searchable text with full audio available, from the University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries.
o Several different Modern English translations
o Widsith, A Verse Translation by Douglas B. Killings
o Widsith, a translation by Bella Millett
* Chronicon Lethrense and Annales Lundense:
o Chronicon Lethrense and Annales Lundenses in translation by Peter Tunstall
o The same translation at Northvegr
* Book 2 of Gesta Danorum at the Online Medieval & Classical library
* Book 7 of Gesta Danorum at the Online Medieval & Classical library
* * The Relation of the Hrolfs Saga Kraka and the Bjarkarimur to Beowulf by Olson, 1916, at Project Gutenberg
* Hrˇlf Kraki's saga in English translation at Northvegr