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MALCOLM III, Caenmore and Margaret Atheling

MALCOLM III, CAENMORE. (MALCOLM III)(Malcolm Caenmore). King of Scotland. King of Strathclyde. [CHART A30].
Born about 1031; son of DUNCAN I, The Gracious, and AELFLAED (Sybil) of Northumbria.

(Canmore, Caen Mor - meaning Malcolm with the large head) Some historians believe Head should be regarded in the context of Headman, while others argue that early kings were usually nicknamed after physical traits, and Malcolm probably actually had a big head.

In 1040 his father was killed in battle by his cousin Macbeth I of Scotland who became the new king. Malcolm found refuge in England under the protection of King Hardicanute of Denmark and England. In 1042 Hardicanute died and was succeeded to the throne of England by his cousin King Edward the Confessor. In 1053 Edward finally agreed to help Malcolm gain the throne of Scotland by offering him an army. Malcolm's preparations for the invasion of Scotland started in the same year. Malcolm found support from the nobles of Southern Scotland. He made the return to Scottish soil in 1056. He defeated and slew MacBeth in 1057 at Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire. He then slew MacBeth’s stepson and successor, King Lulach I of Scotland in 1058. He then succeeded Lulach as king. He was crowned at Scone Abbey, Perthshire, on 25 April 1058.

He married (1) Ingibiorg Finnsdottir about 1060 (about 1066-S?).

He married (2) Margaret Atheling in 1068-1069 in Dunfermline Abbey in Fife, Scotland.

Margaret's confessor wrote the following passage about Malcolm's love for Margaret:
He readily obeyed her wishes and prudent counsels in all things. Whatever she refused, he refused also; whatever pleased her, he also loved for love of her. Hence it was that, although he could not read, he would turn over and examine books which she used either for her devotions or her study; and whenever he heard her express especial liking for a particular book, he would also look at it with special interest, kissing it, and often taking it into his hands. Sometimes he sent for a worker in precious metals, whom he commanded to ornament that volume with gold and gems, and when the work was finished, the King himself used to carry the book to the Queen as a loving proof of his devotion.

Scotland became the refuge of many English at the time of the Norman conquest. Since Malcolm married the sister of Edgar Aetheling, the only surviving claimant to the Anglo-Saxon throne after Harold, this brought increased Anglicization of Scotland. The Celtic Church in Scotland fell in line with the church of Rome. Malcolm was persuaded to support Saxon claims to the English throne. He invaded Northumbria four times. 1070 Malcolm raids Northern England. 1072 Treaty of Abernethy. By 1072 William became tired of this aggression and led an army northward. He forced Malcolm to accept him as overlord.

1091 Nov William Rufus: Renews agreement with Scots

He agreed on an alliance with England, sealed by his (second) marriage to Saint Margaret, Edgar Atheling's sister. Malcolm had several sons by Margaret - these became known as the Margaretsons. Margaret herself promoted the Romish (or Catholic) Church in Scotland throughout Malcolm's reign. At that time, Christianity did exist in Scotland in the form of the Celtic Church, but it took the form of converted sun-worship pagan rituals.

During his reign Scotland fell under the influence of England. The Lowlands of Scotland started speaking an early Scots dialect and adopting Anglo-Saxon habits. Malcolm unsuccessfully tried to stop this influence by having wars with the Norman kings of England after 1066. In 1072 he was forced to give on oath of subservience to William I of England.

His war against William II of England in 1093 only led to the loss of Scottish territory to England. Malcolm died on November of the same year in an ambush during a battle against William's army. His eldest Margaretson son, Edward, also died in that ambush. Malcolm was succeeded by his brother Donald III of Scotland.

Malcolm established the Dunkeld dynasty which ruled Scotland from 1058 until 1286. Four of his sons (Duncan II, Edgar, Alexander I, and David I) later became kings of Scotland, whilst a fifth (Edmund) ruled as co-ruler of Scotland with his uncle Donald III. His daughter Edith married Henry I of England in 1100. She became known as Matilda after her marriage.

He died on 13 November 1093 at the Battle of Alnwick Castle. He is buried in Escorial, Madrid, Spain. [why?]

WIFE (1):
Of Orkney; daughter of Finn Arnasson, Jarl of Halland, and Bergliot (Thorborg) Halfdansdottir. She married (1) Thorfinn Sigurdsson, The Black, Jarl of Orkey sometime before 1038. She married (2) Malcom III about 1066. She died before 1070.

CHILDREN of MALCOLM Caenmore and Ingibiorg Finnsdottir:
  1. Duncan II. Born about 1060. He married Ethelreda, daughter of Gospatrick Earl of Northumberland, in 1090. Acceded in MAY 1094. He died 12 NOV 1094 at the Battle of Montehecin Kincardineshire, Scotland; and was buried at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland.
  2. Malcolm. He died about 1094.
  3. Donald. He died in 1085.
  4. They had six other children.

WIFE (2):
Margaret of Scotland. (Margaret Aetheling)(Margarethe)(Margaret of Wessex). [CHART A1].
Born about 1043-1046, probably at Castle Réka, Mecseknádasd, in the region of Southern Transdanubia, Hungary; daughter of EDWARD Atheling and Agatha of Hungary.

Margaret was raised in Hungary. She came to England in 1066 when her uncle, King Edward the Confessor, died and Margaret's brother, Edgar Atheling, decided to make a claim to the English throne. The English nobles preferred Harold of Wessex over Edgar, but later that year Duke William of Normandy made it all rather a moot point by invading England and establishing himself as King. Many members of the English nobility sought refuge in the court of King Malcolm III Canmore of Scotland, who had himself been an exile in England during the reign of Macbeth. Among the English refugees were Margaret and Edgar. While King Malcom was hospitable to all his new guests, he was rather more hospitable to Margaret, marrying her in 1070 to make her Queen of Scotland.

Margaret impressed not only Malcolm but many other members of the Scottish Court both for her knowledge of continental customs gained in the court of Hungary, and also for her piety. She became highly influential, both indirectly by her influence on Malcolm as well as through direct activities on her part. Prominent among these activities was religious reform. Margaret instigated reforms within the Scottish church, as well as development of closer ties to the larger Roman Church in order to avoid a schism between the Celtic Church and Rome. Further, Margaret was a patroness both of the célidé, Scottish Christian hermits, and also the Benedictine Order. Although Benedictine monks were prominent throughout western continental Europe, there were previously no Benedictine monasteries known to exist in Scotland. Margaret therefore invited English Benedictine monks to establish monasteries in her kingdom.

On the more secular side, Margaret introduced continental fashions, manners, and ceremony to the Scottish court. The popularization of continental fashions had the side-effect of introducing foreign merchants to Scotland, increasing economic ties and communication between Scotland and the continent. Margaret was also a patroness of the arts and education. Further, Malcolm sought Maragret's advice on matters of state, and together with other English exiles Margaret was influential in introducing English-style feudalism and parliament to Scotland.

Margaret was also active in works of charity. Margaret frequently visited and cared for the sick, and on a larger scale had hostels constructed for the poor. She was also in the habit, particularly during Advent and Lent, of holding feasts for as many as 300 commoners in the royal castle.

King Malcolm, meanwhile, was engaged in a contest with William the Conqueror over Northumbria and Cambria. After an unsuccessful 1070 invasion by Malcom into Northumbria followed by an unsuccessful 1072 invasion by William into Scotland, Malcom paid William homage, resulting in temporary peace. William further made assurance of this peace by demanding Malcolm's eldest son Donald (by Malcolm's previous wife Ingibjorg) as a hostage. Time passed, William the Conqueror died, and The Conqueror's son William Rufus took the throne of England. Hostilities again arose between Scotland and England, and in the ensuing unpleasantness Malcolm was killed along with Edward, the eldest son of Malcom and Margaret.

Margaret had already been ill when Malcolm and Edward went off to battle. Her surviving children tried to hide the fact of their deaths, for fear of worsening her condition. But Margaret learned the truth, and whether due to her illness or a broken heart, Margaret died four days after her husband and son, on 16 November 1093.

Margaret was cannonized as a Saint in 1250. Her Feast Day is 10 June, but it is celebrated on 16 November in Scotland. She was celebrated for her work for religious reform and her charitable works. She herself was considered to be an exemplar of the just ruler, and also influenced her husband and children to be just and holy rulers. She was further declared Patroness of Scotland in 1673.

The death of both King and Queen led to yet another unpleasant and unfortunate disagreement over who should take their places on the throne. The most likely candidate was Malcom's eldest son Donald, the one who had been taken hostage by William the Conqueror. This was also the favorite candidate of William Rufus, for during his stay in England Donald had developed a favorable view of the Normans. However, Donald's claim to the throne was contested by Malcom's brother, Donald Bán, together with Malcom and Margaret's son Edmund. Donald Bán was opposed to having a Norman sympathizer on the throne of Scotland, and claimed the throne for himself. Both Donald MacMalcom and Donald Bán held the throne briefly, and lost it violently, before Edgar, son of Malcom and Margaret, came to the throne. He was succeeded by his brothers, Alexander and David. Alexander smoothed over relations with England by marrying the daughter of King Henry I and arranging for Henry to marry Alexander's sister Matilda. Edgar and David carried on their mother's reputation for sanctity, both in their service to the poor and their patronage of religious orders, and David was later canonized. Quite a celebrated family when you consider that Margaret's uncle is also known as Saint Edward the Confessor.

CHILDREN of MALCOLM III Caenmore and Margaret Atheling:
  1. EDITH (Matilda). [CHART A1], [CHART A30]. Born in 1079-1080 in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland. She married HENRY I, Beauclerc, King of England, on 11 NOV 1100. She died on 1 MAY 1118 at Westminster Palace, London, England; and was buried at Westminster Abbey.
  2. Edgar. King of Scotland. Born about 1074. Acceded in OCT 1097. He died 8 JAN (1106) 1107. He is buried at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland.
  3. Alexander I, The Fierce. King of Scotland. Born in 1077-1078. He acceded 8 JAN 1107. He married Sybilla about 1107. He died 23 APR 1124 at Stirling Castle; buried at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland.
  4. DAVID I, The Saint. [CHART A41]. King of Scotland. Earl of Huntingdon. Earl of Northampton. Born (in 1080-S1)(about 1084-S2). He united Alba with Strathclyde. He married of Matilda of Northumberland in 1113. He acceded 23 APR 1124. He died 24 MAY 1153 in Carlisle, Cumbria; buried at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland.
  5. Mary. She married Eustace III, Count of Boulogne in 1102. She died 31 MAY 1116, and is buried at the Abbey of St. Saviour, Bermondsey, London.
  6. Edward. He died on 16 NOV 1093 at Edwardsisle, Jedburgh of wounds received in the Battle of Alnwick.
  7. Edmund I. King of Scotland. Acceded on 12 NOV 1094. He was joint king with Donald III, his uncle. Deposed in OCT 1097 in favor of his brother. Died at Montecute Abbey, Somerset, England where he had been made a monk.
  8. Ethelred. Abbot of Dunkeld. He died before 1098 and was buried at Kilremont Church.



from The Kings and Queens of Scotland
by Caroline Bingham. {S4}.

On the death of Malcolm II, the House of Alpin failed in the male line. Malcolm had two daughters, and the only surviving descendant of his cousin and immediate predecessor Kenneth III was a grand-daughter. King Malcolm's grandsons and King Kenneth's grand-daughter were the leading characters in the drama with which the history of the new dynasty opened.

Malcolm's elder daughter Bethoc married Crinan "the Thane", lay abbot of Dunkeld. At this period, when Celtic monasticism was in decline, lay abbots appear to have been as accepted a part of the ecclesiastical structure as they became centuries later on the eve of the Reformation. Crinan was a great nobleman, as his title implies, and he possessed the added prestige of belonging to the kindred of St. Columba. It was from his abbacy of Dunkeld that the new royal House took its name, for Crinan and Bethoc were the parents of King Duncan I.

Malcolm's younger daughter, whose name may have been Donada, married Finlaech, Mormaer of Moray (Mormaer was a Celtic title which appears to have been the equivalent of Thane or Earl), and they were the parents of Macbeth, who was therefore Duncan's first cousin. His name was in fact 'Maelbeatha', though it would be somewhat pedantic to revert to it.

Macbeth married Kenneth III's grand-daughter Gruoch, the original of Shakespeare's Lady Macbeth. Gruoch had been previously married to Gillicomgan, Mormaer of Moray, a cousin of Macbeth's father Finlaech. By her first marriage she had a son named Lulach.

The events in which Duncan, Macbeth and Gruoch took part were different in emphasis and timing from the familiar events of Shakespeare's tragedy.

Duncan was quite young, probably about thirty-three, when he succeeded his grandfather. At the time of his death in 1040 his two sons, Malcolm and Donald Ban (or Donalbain), were small children.

Macbeth, who was slightly younger than his cousin the King, had, according to the rule of tanistry, an equally good claim to the throne by right of birth, though Duncan had apparently succeeded as their grandfather's chosen heir. In 1040 Macbeth asserted his claim by force of arms, slew Duncan in battle and made himself king.

There is no knowing whether Gruoch's influence played any part in these events. She and Macbeth had no children, but it is likely that as the years passed, she may have become anxious to see her son Lulach accepted as his stepfather's heir.

Duncan's Queen had been a kinswoman of Siward, the Danish Earl who governed northern England under Edward the Confessor. Upon Duncan's death his elder son Malcolm was sent for safety to Siward's Court at York, and subsequently went to the Court of the English king; the younger son Donald Ban was sent to the Western Isles, and then possibly to Ireland. The 'separated fortune' of the brothers, to which Shakespeare referred, was to lead to separate interests and ultimately to their bitter enmity.

Meanwhile, Macbeth consolidated his triumph by defeating and slaying Duncan's father, Crinan, in a battle at Dunkeld in 1045.

Bloodshed, if not murder, had made him king, but he ruled successfully for seventeen years. He was an outstanding benefactor of the Church, and his rule was strong enough to permit his making a pilgrimage to Rome in 1050, where it was recorded that he "scattered money among the poor like seed".

Macbeth appeared to be liberal and secure, but he had an enemy whom the years could only make more dangerous. In 1054 Malcolm, with the assistance of his kinsman Siward, invaded Scotland, defeated Macbeth at Scone and wrested Lothian and Cumbria from him. (The name Cumbria was now given to the whole area which had previously been the kingdom of Strathclyde.) Three years later Malcolm invaded again and completed his victory when he defeated and slew Macbeth at Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire, in 1057.

Malcolm still had Lulach to deal with. Lulach was called "the Simple", so possible it is permissible to see the influence of Gruoch behind his coronation at Scone immediately upon the death of his stepfather. But early the following year Malcolm slew him, it was said, "by strategy". At the end of Shakespeare's play Malcolm, on his way to his coronation at Scone, refers to Macbeth and his wife with pious horror as 'this dead butcher and his fiend-like Queen', but perhaps when Malcolm became King of Scots, his hands were no less bloodstained than Macbeth's.

Crinan, The Thane, and Bethoc
Duncan I, The Gracious, and Aelflaed (Sybil) of Northumbria
Malcolm III Caenmore, married Margarethe

Adam (4001BC-3071BC) and  Eve
Seth (3871BC-2959BC)
Enos (3766BC-2861BC)
Cainaan (3676BC-2766BC)
Mahaleleel (3606BC-2711BC)
Jared (3541BC-2579BC)
Enoch (3379BC-2948BC)
Methusalah (2214BC-2345BC)
Lamech (3127BC-2350BC)
Noah (2945BC-1995BC)
Shem (2443BC-1843BC)
Arphaxad (2343BC-1905BC)
Salah (2308BC-1875BC)
Eber (2278BC-1814BC)
Peleg (2244BC-2005BC)
Reu (2214BC1975BC)
Sereug (2182BC-1952BC)
Nahor (2152BC-2004BC)
Terah (2122BC-1918BC)
Abraham (2052BC-1877BC) and Sarah
Isaac (1892BC-1713BC) and Rebekah
Jacob (Israel) (1892BC-1739BC)  and Leah
Judah (c1870-after1670BC) and Tamar
Mahol  (c1700-?)
Dardanus. (c1650-1412).
Erichthonius ( 1412-1368) and Astyoche Ilium
Troas, King of Dardania.  (1366-1326).  
Ilus, King of Troy. (1326-1277). 
Laomedon (1277-1233), King of Troy,  md Strymo.   
Priam, King of Troy
Munion (c1260-1181) and Troana 
Thor and Sebil
Odin (Sceaf)
Hwala (Wala)
Hathra (Athra)
Sceldwea (Celdwa) 
Beaw (Beu)   
Godwulf. (Gudolfr)  
Frithuwald.( Bor)
Baeldaeg md Nanna, dau of Gewar, King of Norway
Brond (Brona)   
Frithogar (Frithugar) 
Elsa I. (Elesa I)    
Elsa II. (Elesa II) 
Cerdic I, King of Britain & West Saxons 
Ceawlin, King of Wessex 
Egbert, King of Wessex
Alfred the Great
Edward the Elder
Edmund I and Elgiva
Edgar I, The Peaceable  
Ethelred II, the Unready 
Edmund Ironside
Edward Athling, the Exile.   
Margarethe, married Malcolm III Caenmore

Malcolm III, Caenmore, married Margarethe
Edith.  She married HENRY I, King of England.    
Matilda. (Maud) md (1) Henry V of Germany.        
HENRY II, King of England, md Ida.              
William I Longspee md Ela Fitzpatrick.           
William II Longspee md Idonie de Camville.        
Ela Longspee md James de Audley.                  
Hugh de Audley md  Isolde de Mortimer.            
Hugh de Audley md  Margaret de Clare.           
Margaret de Audley.   md Ralph de Stafford.      
Hugh Stafford.  md Philippa de Beauchamp.         
Edmund Stafford.  md Anne of Gloucester.        
Humphrey Stafford.  md Anne Neville.            
Margaret Stafford md Robert Dunham.             
John Dunham md Elizabeth Bowett.                
John Dunham II md Jean Thorland.                 
John Dunham III md Benedict Folgamsee.           
Ralph Dunham.  He married Elizabeth Wentworth.    
Thomas Dunham. He married Jane Bromley.          
John Dunham Sr.. He married Susanna Kenney/Keno.  
John Dunham Jr..  He married Mary.                
Mary Dunham. She married  James Hamblin.          
Elkenah Hamblin.  He married Abigail Hamblin.     
Sylvanus Hamblin.  He married Dorcas Fish.        
Barnabus Hamblin.  He married Mary Bassett.      
Isaiah Hamblin.  He married Daphne Haynes.       
Jacob Vernon Hamblin and Sarah Priscilla Leavitt. 
Ella Ann Hamblin and  Warren Moroni Tenney.         
Clive Vernon Tenney and Minnie Williams
Mildred Ella Tenney  and  Glenn Russell Handy
Deborah Lee Handy and Rodney Allen Morris

Malcolm III, Caenmore, married Margarethe
David I, The Saint, and Matilda of Northumberland
Henry of Huntingdon and Adelaide de Warenne
Humphrey de Bohun and Margaret of Huntingdon
Henry de Bohun and Maud de Mandeville
Humphrey de Bohun and Maud de Lusignan
Humphrey de Bohun and Eleanor de Braose
Humphrey de Bohun and Maud de Fiennes
Humphrey de Bohun and Elizabeth Plantagenet
William de Bohun and Elizabeth de Badlesmere
Elizabeth de Bohun and Richard FitzAlan
Elizabeth FitzAlan and Robert Goushill
Elizabeth Goushill and Robert Wingfield
Elizabeth Wingfield and William Brandon
Eleanor Brandon and John Glemham
Henry Palgrave and Anne Glemham
Thomas Palgrave and Alice Gunton 
Edward Palgrave and Anne
Richard Palgrave and Anna (Hooker?)
Roger Wellington and Mary Palgrave
Joseph Wellington and Elizabeth Straight
Thomas Wellington and Rebecca Simonds
Joseph Wellington and Dorcas Stone
Enoch Wellington and Sarah Richardson
Sally Wellington and Thaddeus Alvord
Charlotte Alvord and Peter Mack Elliott
James Newberry Morris and Harriett Louisa Elliott
Eli Ray Morris and Tina Matilda Kunzler
LeGrand Elliott Morris and Dorothea Berta Ernestine Kersten
Rodney Allen Morris and Deborah Lee Handy